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Aunt Jemima Advertising Collection


Scope and Contents

Biographical Note

Administrative Information

Detailed Description

Administrative Files

Advertising Materials

Original Works of Art

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Aunt Jemima Advertising Collection, 1890-1925 | MGHL Dowd Modern Graphic History Library

By Andrea Degener

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Collection Overview

Title: Aunt Jemima Advertising Collection, 1890-1925Add to your cart.

ID: MGHL/mghl00039

Primary Creator: Frost, A. B. (1851-1928)

Extent: 3.0 Linear Feet


Series arranged by material type.

Series 1: Administrative Files

Series 2: Advertising Materials

Series 3: Original Works of Art

Date Acquired: 07/13/2016. More info below under Accruals.

Subjects: Advertising -- Social aspects -- United States -- History -- 20th century., African American women in advertising -- United States., African American women in popular culture -- History -- 20th century., Frost, Arthur B., Jemima, Aunt., Quaker Oats Company., Stereotypes (Social psychology) in advertising -- United States.

Languages: English

Scope and Contents of the Materials

This collection includes original artwork, packaging, administrative documents, and advertising materials

Collection Historical Note

Aunt Jemima Pancake Flour was one of the most recognizable brands of the 20th century. The image was based on Nancy Green, a cook and storyteller who was born into slavery in 1834. In 1893, the Davis Milling Company aggressively began the promotion of Aunt Jemima at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. Green, as Aunt Jemima, demonstrated the pancake mix and served thousands of pancakes. Her warm personality made her the ideal Aunt Jemima, a living trademark. Her exhibition booth drew such large crowds that special policemen were assigned to manage the large number of people.

The Aunt Jemima product line lies squarely at the intersection of race and consumerism. The company’s products offered housewives a shortcut to pancakes and other scratch-baked items previously prepared by house servants or slaves. The company’s pancake mix appeared in 1889, at the height of the Jim Crow era, and the brand was trademarked in 1893. In 1925, Quaker Oats purchased the brand, and registered their trademark in 1937. Aunt Jemima baking products were among the many labor saving devices, from washing machines and vacuum cleaners to prepared foods and ready-to-wear clothing, rising out of the industrial and consumer economy of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Dr. Maruice Manring notes that early Aunt Jemima advertisements were aimed at middle-class housewives who were financially unable to employ house servants as their mothers and grandmothers had previously done. “You see constant notation in the ads that you can’t have Aunt Jemima today, but you can have her recipe and that’s the next best thing.” He further asserts that “Aunt Jemima advertising played on a certain type of racial nostalgia, particularly the first have of the twentieth century, looking back upon how grand plantation life was and how convenient it was, literally, to have someone like Aunt Jemima who could prepare pancakes and other meals for you.” He also notes that in the context of servants doing the housework, the labor saving devices saved servant, not housewives’, labor. For the new generation of American middle class women who could not afford to hire help, the “slavery nostalgia was particularly effective” in easing the transition from “having someone do something for you to doing it yourself.”1

The Aunt Jemima Advertising collection includes original works of art from 1899 and 1904; a fourth composite work (consisting of both drawn and copied elements ca. 1919), and the original contract sale of the Aunt Jemima Mills Company to the Quaker Oats Company in 1925. The artwork is by prominent American illustrator A. B. Frost (1851-1928). Aunt Jemima remains among the most recognizable trademarks in the United States.


1. Manring, Maurice. 1998. Slave in a box: The strange career of Aunt Jemima. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.

Biographical Note

A. B. Frost illustrated Uncle Remus and His Friends, as well as works by Mark Twain, and many other books and articles.

Subject/Index Terms

Advertising -- Social aspects -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
African American women in advertising -- United States.
African American women in popular culture -- History -- 20th century.
Frost, Arthur B.
Jemima, Aunt.
Quaker Oats Company.
Stereotypes (Social psychology) in advertising -- United States.

Administrative Information

Repository: MGHL Dowd Modern Graphic History Library

Accruals: There are no accruals.

Access Restrictions: There are no restrictions to access.

Use Restrictions:

Users of the collection must read and agree to abide by the rules and procedures set forth in the Materials Use Policies.

Providing access to materials does not constitute permission to publish or otherwise authorize use. All publication not covered by fair use or other exceptions is restricted to those who have permission of the copyright holder, which may or may not be Washington University.

If you wish to publish or license Special Collections materials, please contact Special Collections to inquire about copyright status at (314) 935-5495 or spec@wumail.wustl.edu. (Publish means quotation in whole or in part in seminar or term papers, theses or dissertations, journal articles, monographs, books, digital forms, photographs, images, dramatic presentations, transcriptions, or any other form prepared for a limited or general public.)

Acquisition Method: This collection was purchased by the Dowd Modern Graphic History Library, Department of Special Collections at Washington University in St. Louis.

Preferred Citation: Aunt Jemima Advertising Collection, Washington University Libraries, Department of Special Collections

Processing Information: This collection was processed by Andrea Degener in October 2018.

Box and Folder Listing

Browse by Series:

[Series 1: Administrative Files],
[Series 2: Advertising Materials],
[Series 3: Original Works of Art],

Series 3: Original Works of ArtAdd to your cart.
Box 1Add to your cart.
Folder 6: Illustrations on Board, ca.1890, 1904, 1919Add to your cart.
Item 1: Painting of Aunt Jemima in 3/4 Profile, ca.1890Add to your cart.

2 pieces; original painting has become detached from backer board

Gouache, watercolor and ink on board

4 x 6.75 inches (painting), 7.5 x 11 inches (backer board)

Item 2: Painting of Aunt Jemima in 3/4 Profile, 1904Add to your cart.

1 piece; illustration on board with original paper cover attached

Writing on paper cover: "Original Aunt Jemima Face by Frost"

Mixed media; gouache painted on top of photograph (silver gelatin print)

10.25 x 12.5 inches

Item 3: Painting of Aunt Jemima on Box, ca.1919Add to your cart.

1 piece; illustration on board with original folder from the art department

Mixed media; gouache and ink on top of photograph (silver gelatin print)

4.5 x 6 inches

Item 4: Correspondence, 1958: February 7Add to your cart.

From C. R. Martin to Harold Klingensmith

Quaker Oats Company letterhead

Discusses original paintings given to Harold Klingensmith by C. R. Martin.

Browse by Series:

[Series 1: Administrative Files],
[Series 2: Advertising Materials],
[Series 3: Original Works of Art],

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